Plagiarism is "the un-credited use (both intentional and unintentional) of somebody else's words or ideas." According to UC Berkeley's Code of Student Conduct, Section V.102.01, plagiarism is academic misconduct, and is grounds for disciplinary sanctions, including a failing grade, suspension or dismissal from the University.
You probably know that:
•copying a friend's homework,
•paying someone to write a term paper for you,
•or copying large sections of text and claiming it as your own work...
are all examples of plagiarism.
But did you also know that:
•paraphrasing someone else's idea without giving credit is also plagiarism?
•many professors use software that can help detect plagiarized material from the Web or other sources in students' assignments?
•that academic misconduct cases at UC Berkeley have increased more than 250% over the last ten years?*
Whenever you discuss someone else's ideas, their data, or the results of their research, you must cite that work! Citations are needed for paraphrases or quotations from another's work.
•This statement needs a citation: "Prairie dogs impact the species richness of insect communities in grassland ecosystems."
•This statement does not: "The theory of evolution via the process of natural selection is one of the underpinnings of modern biology."
Information that's common knowledge does not need a citation. But how do you know if it's common knowledge? One simple rule applies: When in doubt, cite it!
Students are caught plagiarizing and cheating on this assignment and term papers in Bio 1B every semester. This usually results in course failure and a letter placed in the student’s file which will be shared with graduate program application materials.
Citing Articles (print and online)
Why do you need to cite your sources?
Citations fulfill several functions:
•They give proper credit to the work others have done.
•They allow readers of your work to follow up on the sources you've used.
•They show that you have appropriately incorporated the scientific literature in the area you're writing about into your own work.
Basic elements of journal article citations (in print OR online):
8.For online articles: URL or DOI (not required for all citation styles)
Full citations, or references, at the end of a paper or article need to provide the reader with enough information to find the work that's referred to.
There are hundreds of different ways to format citations, and they vary among disciplines (humanities, sciences, social sciences, etc.). In the sciences, it's common for peer-reviewed journals to have their own citation styles. Usually, professors will specify what citation style they'd like students to follow for an assignment. There are a number of style manuals, some designed especially for bioscience literature, located in the Bioscience Library’s reference area and on the web.
Read more about styles:
•Citing Your Sources [UC Berkeley Library]
•Research and Documentation Online, 5th edition. Based on Hacker D, Fister B. 2010. Research and documentation in the electronic age, 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins.
•Lipson C. 2006. Cite right: A quick guide to citation styles - MLA, APA, Chicago, the sciences, professions, and more. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bioscience Library: PN 171 .F56 L55 2006, Reference.
Citing Web Pages
Basic elements of web citations:
•Author name (may be an organization)
•Date you retrieved the web page
•URL for specific page
[AAMC] Association of American Medical Colleges. 1995-2012. (5 June 2012; www.aamc.org)
Online document available on university program or department website:
Chou L, McClintock R, Moretti F, et al. 2003. Technology and Education: New Wine in New Bottles: Choosing Pasts and Imagining Educational Futures. (5 June 2012; www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html)
Page from a website, no author identified, no date:
The Talk. Origins Archive: Must-read FAQs. (5 June 2012; www.talkorigins.org/origins/faqs-mustread.html)
Creating Bibliographies with RefWorks
•RefWorks is a web-based software application that offers a way to collect, store, and manage references easily.
•RefWorks helps you keep track of references you've collected for papers and projects.
•RefWorks works with Microsoft Word (and other word processing programs) to easily create bibliographies for your papers with just a few clicks, with hundreds of different citation styles to choose from!
•RefWorks is free for UCB students, faculty, and staff. The UCB Libraries have purchased a site license to RefWorks.